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Imitation in Animals: Evidence, Function, and Mechanism - Zentall & Akins
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Figure 3. Candle Contact Experiment: Proportion of rats making one contact with flame or less (1) following observation of demonstrator learning to avoid contact with flame (OC), (2) following visually obscured observation of demonstrator learning to avoid contact with flame (NVC) to control for auditory and olfactory cues, (3) following observation of a demonstrator not making contact with flame (NC), and (4) trial and error control.
Figure 6. Quail Imitation: Two action method - Proportion of total responses (pecks and steps) that were pecks, for quail that observed a demonstrator quail pecking (red bars) versus those that observed a demonstrator quail stepping (blue bars).