Morgan's Canon - (to be repeated often by all
engaged in the enterprise)
"For in the study of animal psychology as a branch of scientific inquiry, it is necessary
that accurate observation, and a sound knowledge of of the biological relationships of
animals, should go hand in hand with a thorough appreciation of the methods and results of
modern psychology. The only fruitful method of procedure is the interpretation of facts
observed with due care in the light of sound psychological principles. What some of these
principles are we have considered, or shall consider in this work. There is one basal
principle, however, the brief exposition of which may fitly bring to a close this chapter.
It may be stated: --
In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome
of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of
the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale."
the process leading to an "intelligent" behavior
(Morgan's reaction to Romanes'